Because it must accomplish this task in the space of only a few hundred words, it is important not to include ambiguous references or phrases that will confuse the reader or mislead them about the content and objectives of your research.
Instead, explain these terms in the Introduction Only use references to people or other words if they are well-known. Otherwise, generally avoid referencing anything outside of your study in the abstract. Never include tables, figures, sources, or long quotations in your abstract; you will have plenty of time to present and refer to these in the body of your paper.
The keywords should thus be words that are commonly used in searches but should also be highly relevant to your work and found in the text of your abstract. Include important words or short phrases central to your research in both the abstract and keywords sections. The Structure of the Abstract As mentioned above, the abstract especially the informative abstract acts as a surrogate or synopsis of your research paper, doing almost as much work as the thousands of words that follows it in the body.
In the hard sciences and most social sciences, the abstract includes the following sections and organizational schema. Each section is quite compact—only a single sentence or two, although there is room for expansion if one element or statement is particularly interesting or compelling. As the abstract is almost always one long paragraph, the individual sections should naturally merge into one another to create a holistic effect.
Use the following as a checklist to ensure that you have included all of the necessary content in your abstract. So your research is about rabies in Brazilian squirrels. So what? Why is this important? You should start your abstract by explaining why people should care about this study—why is it significant to your field and perhaps to the wider world? And what is exact purpose of your study; what are you trying to achieve? Start by answering the following questions: What made you decide to do this study or project?
Why is this study important to your field or to the lay reader? Why should someone read your entire essay? You can combine the problem with the motivation section, but from a perspective of organization and clarity, it is best to separate the two. Here are some precise questions to address: What is your research trying to better understand or what problem is it trying to solve?
What is the scope of your study—does it try to explain something general or specific? What is your central claim or argument? You have establish the importance of the research, your motivation for studying this issue, and the specific problem your paper addresses. Now you need to discuss how you solved or made progress on this problem—how you conducted your research. If your study includes your own work or that of your team, describe that here. If in your paper you reviewed the work of others, explain this here.
Did you use analytic models? Step 4 Make sure the abstract answers these questions: What is the purpose of this research?
How was the research conducted? How did I get my answers? What answers did I get? What do these results mean? Step 5 When the abstract is complete, read everything you have written from top to bottom.
Then, eliminate all extra information in order to keep it as concise as possible. Step 6 Read the abstract thoroughly again. It should express your thesis or central idea and your key points; it should also suggest any implications or applications of the research you discuss in the paper.
The abstract should begin with a brief but precise statement of the problem or issue, followed by a description of the research method and design, the major findings, and the conclusions reached. The abstract should contain the most important key words referring to method and content: these facilitate access to the abstract by computer search and enable a reader to decide whether to read the entire dissertation.
Note: Your abstract should read like an overview of your paper, not a proposal for what you intended to study or accomplish. I will prove that scientists have ethical and moral questions about genetic engineering because of this project. Good abstract: Begun in , the human genome project intends to map the 23 chromosomes that provide the blueprint for the human species.
The project has both scientific and ethical goals. The scientific goals underscore the advantages of the genome project, including identifying and curing diseases and enabling people to select the traits of their offspring, among other opportunities.
Structure and Writing Style I. I will prove that scientists have ethical and moral questions about genetic engineering because of this project. By the time you finish the essay writing process, you will know what to use in abstract to perfectly describe your work. These findings have important implications for how achievement is best encouraged, as well as for more theoretical issues, such as the potential cost of performance goals and the socialization of contingent self-worth. Identify the major results from your Results section.