For two author papers, give both authors' last names e. Articles with more than two authors are cited by the first authors last name followed "and others" or "et al. When a book, paper, or article has no identifiable author, cite it as Anon. Year, e. See Full Citation.
Undertaking a literature review: a step-by-step approach. Truant, R. Cell Biol. Weetman, D. Evaluation of alternative hypotheses to explain temperature-induced life history shifts in Daphnia. Plant Res. Last name s , initial s of the author s NB!
Publication year. Article title. Journal title abbreviated Volume: pages. For references to such articles see examples below: Oxtoby, L. Estimating stable carbon isotope values of microphytobenthos in the Arctic for application to food web studies. Polar Biol. DOI Last name s , initial s of the author s. Year of publication. Journal title. DOI number. Sooner or later DOI will probably be standard information added to the reference. Carpalia, C. To be published in Physical Review B.
You should be able to work out what type of article you have found using the information provided with the article. The first initials and last name of the translator and the notation 'Trans. Next provide the location, publisher, and a note of the original date of publication. For example: Freud, S. The psychopathology of everyday life. Brill, Trans. London: T. Fisher Unwin. Original work published The first line of each reference should be flush left with the margin of the page.
Each subsequent line of your reference should be indented. Basic Guidelines The purpose of the term paper in ECS 15 is for you to learn how to do effective research on a subject and then write it up clearly, showing where you got your information. A research paper requires searching for information pertinent to a given subject, organizing it, and presenting it effectively in written form. Oral research reports are also useful, but this course does not cover them.
In the following sections, we will present the way that we want you to cite your references in the term paper for this course. The required format meets the accepted practices cited in Li and Crane , a reference that is currently considered the best authority on citing electronic sources. This book in turn follows the basic format for the American Psychological Association APA, , which is a good format though by no means the only acceptable one in technical publications.
You may be required to use slightly different formats for other papers, such as papers submitted for publication to refereed journals, each of which typically have their own styles. Learning how to follow one such set of rules is a worthwhile exercise. You will therefore be expected to use the format set out below.
In-text Citation to References When citing a reference from your reference list, please use the following conventions.
Put in parentheses the author s last names, the year, and optionally the page number s separated by commas. For one author, use the author's last name and year separated by a comma. For example: Walters, or Austin, For more than five authors, use the first author's last name and "et al. For the date, use the year. If there are two references by the same author s for the same year, use letters after the year: Walters, b.
If there are specific page numbers for a citation, add them after the year Walters, , pp. If you include the author's name s in the text of a sentence in the paper, you may omit their names from the parentheses as follows: "Austin includes valuable references to Do not use footnotes in this class for citations. You can use them for explanatory text, but not for references.
Koricheva, J. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
For example: Walters, R.
Though Scientific Style and Format now uses citation—sequence for its own references, each system is widely used in scientific publishing. The natural history of tardive dyskinesia. Do not use footnotes for citations. Genetic variation in wild plants and animals in Sweden : a review of case studies from the perspective of conservation genetics. If you include the author's name s in the text of a sentence in the paper, you may omit their names from the parentheses as follows: "Austin includes valuable references to Science moves forward only by building upon the work of others.
Sabatier Books In the end reference, separate information about author s , date, title, edition, and publication by periods. Landranger series, Sheet , , London. In: Guerrero, R. Mitochondrial biogenesis and breakdown. Toth, I. For example: Atkinson, J.
Title of book. Total number of pages pp. Journal title. This is to facilitate a reader's finding the reference in a long publication such as a book not done for journal articles. If your source of information is from a personal verbal communication, you would use the following format for the first citation from that person: It is possible to correct the raw dD values measured on the mass spectrometer Mark Conrad, Lawrence-Berkeley National Lab, personal communication. If there is a subtitle, it too should begin with a capital letter.
Thermal evolution of ectotherm body size: why get big in the cold? Polymicrobial diseases.