Writers in disciplines as diverse as astrophysics, biology, psychology, and education follow APA style. The major components of a paper written in APA style are listed in the following box. These are the major components of an APA-style paper: Title page Body, which includes the following: Headings and, if necessary, subheadings to organize the content In-text citations of research sources References page All these components must be saved in one document, not as separate documents.
List the first three elements in the order given in the previous list, centered about one third of the way down from the top of the page. Use the headers and footers tool of your word-processing program to add the header, with the title text at the left and the page number in the upper-right corner.
Your title page should look like the following example. Abstract The next page of your paper provides an abstract A concise one hundred to one hundred fifty words summary of research findings that appears at the beginning of an APA-style paper. An abstract does not need to be provided in every paper, but an abstract should be used in papers that include a hypothesis. A good abstract is concise—about one hundred to one hundred fifty words—and is written in an objective, impersonal style.
Your writing voice will not be as apparent here as in the body of your paper. Tip 2! In case of Japanese author names, some journals specify guidelines for formatting of author names e. Author Affiliations The purpose of providing author affiliations is to indicate the institution s where the research was performed, and to provide readers with a way of contacting the authors.
A format that would be implemented in your writing depends on the requests of your professor. Therefore, it is better and safer for you to be skilled in all the format structures, just to be sure!
You'll get on the winning side if you follow our simple instructions on how to prepare a perfect title page for a research paper. APA format, as a rule, consists of the following parts: Title. Running head. Page number.
Level 5: Should be the smallest heading in your paper Indented Italicized Only place an uppercase letter at the first word of the heading. First and foremost, the only reason why any graphics should be added is to provide the reader with an easier way to see or read information, rather than typing it all out in the text.
Lots of numbers to discuss? Try organizing your information into a chart or table. Pie charts, bar graphs, coordinate planes, and line graphs are just a few ways to show numerical data, relationships between numbers, and many other types of information. Instead of typing out long, drawn out descriptions, create a drawing or image. Many visual learners would appreciate the ability to look at an image to make sense of information.
The first graphic, labeled as 1, should be the first one mentioned in the text. Follow them in the appropriate numerical order in which they appear in the text of your paper.
Example: Figure 1, Figure 2, Table 1, Figure 3. Only use graphics if they will supplement the material in your text. If they reinstate what you already have in your text, then it is not necessary to include a graphic. Include enough wording in the graphic so that the reader is able to understand its meaning, even if it is isolated from the corresponding text.
However, do not go overboard with adding a ton of wording in your graphic. Tables: Is there anything better than seeing a neatly organized data table? We think not! If you have tons of numbers or data to share, consider creating a table instead of typing out a wordy paragraph. Tables are pretty easy to whip up on Google Docs or Microsoft Word. Here are a few pointers to keep in mind: Choose to type out your data OR create a table. Choose one or the other. If you choose to create a table, discuss it very briefly in the text.
Clara A. Scott C. Abstract In this summary of your research, you must state your subject i. Avoid using acronyms and abbreviations in the abstract, as the reader may not be familiar with them. Use full terms instead. Keywords Below the abstract, include a list of key terms to help other researchers locate your study. Note that "keywords" is one word with no space and is followed by a colon: Keywords: paper format, scientific writing.
Check the use of punctuation e. Some journals e. This aids in the classification of your research. Introduction This is the reader's first impression of your paper, so it should be clear and concise.
Include relevant background information on your topic, using in-text citations as necessary. Report new developments in the field, and state how your research fills gaps in the existing research. Focus on the specific problem you are addressing, along with its possible solutions, and outline the limitations of your study.
However, don't start too broad; keep the information relevant. For example, the participants gave their informed consent, read a set of instructions, completed a block of four practice trials, completed a block of 20 test trials, completed two questionnaires, and were debriefed and excused. In the third basic way to organize a method section, the participants subsection is followed by a materials subsection before the design and procedure subsections.
This works well when there are complicated materials to describe. This might mean multiple questionnaires, written vignettes that participants read and respond to, perceptual stimuli, and so on. The heading of this subsection can be modified to reflect its content.
Although there are no standard subsections, it is still important for the results section to be logically organized. Typically it begins with certain preliminary issues.
One is whether any participants or responses were excluded from the analyses and why. The rationale for excluding data should be described clearly so that other researchers can decide whether it is appropriate.
A second preliminary issue is how multiple responses were combined to produce the primary variables in the analyses. For example, if participants rated the attractiveness of 20 stimulus people, you might have to explain that you began by computing the mean attractiveness rating for each participant. Or if they recalled as many items as they could from study list of 20 words, did you count the number correctly recalled, compute the percentage correctly recalled, or perhaps compute the number correct minus the number incorrect?
A third preliminary issue is the reliability of the measures. A final preliminary issue is whether the manipulation was successful. This is where you would report the results of any manipulation checks. The results section should then tackle the primary research questions, one at a time.
If you choose to create a table, discuss it very briefly in the text. And, based on this page in particular, a reader will decide whether your work is worth reading and studying in detail. Or, you can use our automatic generator. The experiment reported below attempted to fulfill these conditions.
It is a concise statement of the questions, general procedure, basic findings, and main conclusions of the paper.
Note that if an author has moved since completing the research, it is inappropriate to list their current address as the main address. Tell the reader why s he should keep reading and why what you are about to present is interesting. In essence, you are using headings to create a hierarchy of information.
Titles should be preferably written as a phrase, but if necessary, it may be a declarative sentence or a question. Statistics When presenting statistical information, you must provide enough specific information to accurately describe the relationships among your data. This makes it easier to edit your text and format your equations before publication.
We think not! The dining room was described as similar to a fine restaurant except that tipping was not required. Finally, it helps your reader find additional materials if he or she wishes to learn more about your topic.
This theory is justified with valid evidence. The first graphic, labeled as 1, should be the first one mentioned in the text. Page number. What procedures were followed? The body of most scientific papers On the page after the abstract, begin with the body of the paper.
Let the reader follow the development of the evidence. Here are a few pointers to keep in mind: Choose to type out your data OR create a table.
Use double-spaced text throughout your paper. Tables are numbered separately from the figures as Table 1 to Table X. On the next line write the title. Titles should be preferably written as a phrase, but if necessary, it may be a declarative sentence or a question.